Rainbow dash



For other uses, see Rainbow (disambiguation).
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Double rainbow and supernumerary rainbows on the inside of the primary arc. The shadow of the photographer’s head on the bottom marks the centre of the rainbow circle (antisolar point).

Rainbow after the rain, Grodno, Belarus

A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky. It takes the form of a multicoloured arc. Rainbows caused by sunlight always appear in the section of sky directly opposite the sun.

Rainbows can be full circles; however, the average observer sees only an arc formed by illuminated droplets above the ground,[1]and centred on a line from the sun to the observer’s eye.

In a primary rainbow, the arc shows red on the outer part and violet on the inner side. This rainbow is caused by light being refracted when entering a droplet of water, then reflected inside on the back of the droplet and refracted again when leaving it.

In a double rainbow, a second arc is seen outside the primary arc, and has the order of its colours reversed, with red on the inner side of the arc.



Image of the end of a rainbow at Jasper National Park

A rainbow is not located at a specific distance from the observer, but comes from an optical illusion caused by any water droplets viewed from a certain angle relative to a light source. Thus, a rainbow is not an object and cannot be physically approached. Indeed, it is impossible for an observer to see a rainbow from water droplets at any angle other than the customary one of 42 degrees from the direction opposite the light source. Even if an observer sees another observer who seems “under” or “at the end of” a rainbow, the second observer will see a different rainbow—farther off—at the same angle as seen by the first observer.

Rainbows span a continuous spectrum of colours. Any distinct bands perceived are an artefact of human colour vision, and no banding of any type is seen in a black-and-white photo of a rainbow, only a smooth gradation of intensity to a maximum, then fading towards the other side. For colours seen by the human eye, the most commonly cited and remembered sequence is Newton‘s sevenfold red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet,[2][3]remembered by the mnemonic, Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain (ROYGBIV).

Rainbows can be caused by many forms of airborne water. These include not only rain, but also mist, spray, and airborne dew.


Rainbows can form in mist, such as that of a waterfall.
Rainbows may form in the spray created by waves (called spray bows).

Rainbows can be observed whenever there are water drops in the air and sunlight shining from behind the observer at a low altitude angle. Because of this, rainbows are usually seen in the western sky during the morning and in the eastern sky during the early evening. The most spectacular rainbow displays happen when half the sky is still dark with raining clouds and the observer is at a spot with clear sky in the direction of the sun. The result is a luminous rainbow that contrasts with the darkened background. During such good visibility conditions, the larger but fainter secondary rainbow is often visible. It appears about 10° outside of the primary rainbow, with inverse order of colours.

The rainbow effect is also commonly seen near waterfalls or fountains. In addition, the effect can be artificially created by dispersing water droplets into the air during a sunny day. Rarely, a moonbow, lunar rainbow or nighttime rainbow, can be seen on strongly moonlit nights. As human visual perception for colour is poor in low light, moonbows are often perceived to be white.[4]

It is difficult to photograph the complete semicircle of a rainbow in one frame, as this would require an angle of view of 84°. For a 35 mm camera, a wide-angle lens with a focal length of 19 mm or less would be required. Now that software for stitching several images into a panorama is available, images of the entire arc and even secondary arcs can be created fairly easily from a series of overlapping frames.

From above the earth such as in an aeroplane, it is sometimes possible to see a rainbow as a full circle. This phenomenon can be confused with the glory phenomenon, but a glory is usually much smaller, covering only 5–20°.

The sky inside a primary rainbow is brighter than the sky outside of the bow. This is because each raindrop is a sphere and it scatters light over an entire circular disc in the sky. The radius of the disc depends on the wavelength of light, with red light being scattered over a larger angle than blue light. Over most of the disc, scattered light at all wavelengths overlaps, resulting in white light which brightens the sky. At the edge, the wavelength dependence of the scattering gives rise to the rainbow.[5]

Light of primary rainbow arc is 96% polarised tangential to the arch.[6] Light of second arc is 90% polarised.

Number of colours in spectrum or rainbow

A spectrum obtained using a glass prism and a point source is a continuum of wavelengths without bands. The number of colours that the human eye is able to distinguish in a spectrum is in the order of 100.[7] Accordingly, the Munsell colour system(a 20th-century system for numerically describing colours, based on equal steps for human visual perception) distinguishes 100 hues. The apparent discreteness of main colours is an artefact of human perception and the exact number of main colours is a somewhat arbitrary choice.

Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet

Newton, who admitted his eyes were not very critical in distinguishing colours,[8] originally (1672) divided the spectrum into five main colours: red, yellow, green, blue and violet. Later he included orange and indigo, giving seven main colours by analogy to the number of notes in a musical scale.[2][9] Newton chose to divide the visible spectrum into seven colours out of a belief derived from the beliefs of the ancient Greek sophists, who thought there was a connection between the colours, the musical notes, the known objects in the Solar System, and the days of the week.[10][11][12]

Rainbow (middle: real, bottom: computed) compared to true spectrum (top): unsaturated colours and different colour profile

According to Isaac Asimov, “It is customary to list indigo as a color lying between blue and violet, but it has never seemed to me that indigo is worth the dignity of being considered a separate color. To my eyes it seems merely deep blue.”[13]

The colour pattern of a rainbow is different from a spectrum, and the colours are less saturated. There is spectral smearing in a rainbow owing to the fact that for any particular wavelength, there is a distribution of exit angles, rather than a single unvarying angle.[14] In addition, a rainbow is a blurred version of the bow obtained from a point source, because the disk diameter of the sun (0.5°) cannot be neglected compared to the width of a rainbow (2°). The number of colour bands of a rainbow may therefore be different from the number of bands in a spectrum, especially if the droplets are particularly large or small. Therefore, the number of colours of a rainbow is variable. If, however, the word rainbow is used inaccurately to mean spectrum, it is the number of main colours in the spectrum.

The question of whether everyone sees seven colours in a rainbow is related to the idea of Linguistic relativity. Suggestions have been made that there is universality in the way that a rainbow is perceived.[15][16] However, more recent research suggests that the number of distinct colours observed and what these are called depend on the language that one uses with people whose language has fewer colour words seeing fewer discrete colour bands.[17]


Light rays enter a raindrop from one direction (typically a straight line from the sun), reflect off the back of the raindrop, and fan out as they leave the raindrop. The light leaving the rainbow is spread over a wide angle, with a maximum intensity at the angles 40.89–42°. (Note: Between 2 and 100% of the light is reflected at each of the three surfaces encountered, depending on the angle of incidence. This diagram only shows the paths relevant to the rainbow.)
White light separates into different colours on entering the raindrop due to dispersion, causing red light to be refracted less than blue light.

When sunlight encounters a raindrop, part of the light is reflected and the rest enters the raindrop. The light is refracted at the surface of the raindrop. When this light hits the back of the raindrop, some of it is reflected off the back. When the internally reflected light reaches the surface again, once more some is internally reflected and some is refracted as it exits the drop. (The light that reflects off the drop, exits from the back, or continues to bounce around inside the drop after the second encounter with the surface, is not relevant to the formation of the primary rainbow.) The overall effect is that part of the incoming light is reflected back over the range of 0° to 42°, with the most intense light at 42°.[18] This angle is independent of the size of the drop, but does depend on its refractive index. Seawater has a higher refractive index than rain water, so the radius of a “rainbow” in sea spray is smaller than a true rainbow. This is visible to the naked eye by a misalignment of these bows.[19]

The reason the returning light is most intense at about 42° is that this is a turning point – light hitting the outermost ring of the drop gets returned at less than 42°, as does the light hitting the drop nearer to its centre. There is a circular band of light that all gets returned right around 42°. If the sun were a laser emitting parallel, monochromatic rays, then the luminance (brightness) of the bow would tend toward infinity at this angle (ignoring interference effects). (See Caustic (optics).) But since the sun’s luminance is finite and its rays are not all parallel (it covers about half a degree of the sky) the luminance does not go to infinity. Furthermore, the amount by which light is refracted depends upon its wavelength, and hence its colour. This effect is called dispersion. Blue light (shorter wavelength) is refracted at a greater angle than red light, but due to the reflection of light rays from the back of the droplet, the blue light emerges from the droplet at a smaller angle to the original incident white light ray than the red light. Due to this angle, blue is seen on the inside of the arc of the primary rainbow, and red on the outside. The result of this is not only to give different colours to different parts of the rainbow, but also to diminish the brightness. (A “rainbow” formed by droplets of a liquid with no dispersion would be white, but brighter than a normal rainbow.)

The light at the back of the raindrop does not undergo total internal reflection, and some light does emerge from the back. However, light coming out the back of the raindrop does not create a rainbow between the observer and the sun because spectra emitted from the back of the raindrop do not have a maximum of intensity, as the other visible rainbows do, and thus the colours blend together rather than forming a rainbow.[20]

A rainbow does not exist at one particular location. Many rainbows exist; however, only one can be seen depending on the particular observer’s viewpoint as droplets of light illuminated by the sun. All raindrops refract and reflect the sunlight in the same way, but only the light from some raindrops reaches the observer’s eye. This light is what constitutes the rainbow for that observer. The whole system composed by the sun’s rays, the observer’s head, and the (spherical) water drops has an axial symmetry around the axis through the observer’s head and parallel to the sun’s rays. The rainbow is curved because the set of all the raindrops that have the right angle between the observer, the drop, and the sun, lie on a cone pointing at the sun with the observer at the tip. The base of the cone forms a circle at an angle of 40–42° to the line between the observer’s head and their shadow but 50% or more of the circle is below the horizon, unless the observer is sufficiently far above the earth’s surface to see it all, for example in an aeroplane (see above).[21][22] Alternatively, an observer with the right vantage point may see the full circle in a fountain or waterfall spray.[23]

Mathematical derivation

Mathematical derivation

We can determine the perceived angle which the rainbow subtends as follows.[24]

Given a spherical raindrop, and defining the perceived angle of the rainbow as 2φ, and the angle of the total internal reflection as 2β, then the angle of incidence of the sun’s rays with respect to the drop’s normal is 2βφ, and therefore, from Snell’s law, sin(2βφ) = 4/3 sin β.

Solving for φ, we get φ = 2β – arcsin(4/3 sin β).

The rainbow will occur where the angle φ is maximum with respect to the angle β. Therefore, from calculus, we can set / = 0, and solve for β, which yields βmax ≈ 40.2°. Substituting back into the earlier equation yields 2φmax ≈ 42°.


Multiple rainbows

“Double rainbow” redirects here. For other uses, see Double Rainbow.

Double rainbow created in the mist of Niagara Falls

Secondary rainbows are caused by a double reflection of sunlight inside the raindrops, and are centred on the sun itself. They are about 127° (violet) to 130° (red) wide. Since this is more than 90°, they are seen on the same side of the sky as the primary rainbow, about 10° above it at apparent angles of 50–53°. As a result of the “inside” of the secondary bow being “up” to the observer, the colours appear reversed compared to the primary bow. The secondary rainbow is fainter than the primary because more light escapes from two reflections compared to one and because the rainbow itself is spread over a greater area of the sky. Each rainbow reflects white light inside its coloured bands, but that is “down” for the primary and “up” for the secondary.[25] The dark area of unlit sky lying between the primary and secondary bows is called Alexander’s band, after Alexander of Aphrodisias who first described it.[26]

Twinned rainbow

A rainbow with mild twinning near its top (note the visible streaks of a rain shower at the same location), as well as supernumerary bands towards the left.

Unlike a double rainbow that consists of two separate and concentric rainbow arcs, the very rare twinned rainbow appears as two rainbow arcs that split from a single base.[27] The colours in the second bow, rather than reversing as in a secondary rainbow, appear in the same order as the primary rainbow. A “normal” secondary rainbow may be present as well. Twinned rainbows can look similar to, but should not be confused with supernumerary bands. The two phenomena may be told apart by their difference in colour profile: supernumerary bands consist of subdued pastel hues (mainly pink, purple and green), while the twinned rainbow shows the same spectrum as a regular rainbow. The cause of a twinned rainbow is the combination of different sizes of water drops falling from the sky. Due to air resistance, raindrops flatten as they fall, and flattening is more prominent in larger water drops. When two rain showers with different-sized raindrops combine, they each produce slightly different rainbows which may combine and form a twinned rainbow.[28] A numerical ray tracing study showed that a twinned rainbow on a photo could be explained by a mixture of 0.40 and 0.45 mm droplets. That small difference in droplet size resulted in a small difference in flattening of the droplet shape, and a large difference in flattening of the rainbow top.[29]

Circular rainbow

Meanwhile, the even rarer case of a rainbow split into three branches was observed and photographed in nature.[30]

Full-circle rainbow

In theory, every rainbow is a circle, but from the ground, only its upper half can be seen. Since the rainbow’s centre is diametrically opposed to the sun’s position in the sky, more of the circle comes into view as the sun approaches the horizon, meaning that the largest section of the circle normally seen is about 50% during sunset or sunrise. Viewing the rainbow’s lower half requires the presence of water droplets below the observer’s horizon, as well as sunlight that is able to reach them. These requirements are not usually met when the viewer is at ground level, either because droplets are absent in the required position, or because the sunlight is obstructed by the landscape behind the observer. From a high viewpoint such as a high building or an aircraft, however, the requirements can be met and the full-circle rainbow can be seen.[31][32] Like a partial rainbow, the circular rainbow can have a secondary bow or supernumerary bows as well.[33] It is possible to produce the full circle when standing on the ground, for example by spraying a water mist from a garden hose while facing away from the sun.[34]

A circular rainbow should not be confused with the glory, which is much smaller in diameter and is created by different optical processes. In the right circumstances, a glory and a (circular) rainbow or fog bow can occur together. Another atmospheric phenomenon that may be mistaken for a “circular rainbow” is the 22° halo, which is caused by ice crystals rather than liquid water droplets, and is located around the sun (or moon), not opposite it.

Supernumerary rainbows

Contrast-enhanced photograph of a rainbow with additional supernumerary bands inside the primary bow

In certain circumstances, one or several narrow, faintly coloured bands can be seen bordering the violet edge of a rainbow; i.e., inside the primary bow or, much more rarely, outside the secondary. These extra bands are called supernumerary rainbows or supernumerary bands; together with the rainbow itself the phenomenon is also known as a stacker rainbow. The supernumerary bows are slightly detached from the main bow, become successively fainter along with their distance from it, and have pastel colours (consisting mainly of pink, purple and green hues) rather than the usual spectrum pattern.[35] The effect becomes apparent when water droplets are involved that have a diameter of about 1mm or less; the smaller the droplets are, the broader the supernumerary bands become, and the less saturated their colours.[36] Due to their origin in small droplets, supernumerary bands tend to be particularly prominent in fogbows.[37]

Supernumerary rainbows cannot be explained using classical geometric optics. The alternating faint bands are caused by interference between rays of light following slightly different paths with slightly varying lengths within the raindrops. Some rays are in phase, reinforcing each other through constructive interference, creating a bright band; others are out of phase by up to half a wavelength, cancelling each other out through destructive interference, and creating a gap. Given the different angles of refraction for rays of different colours, the patterns of interference are slightly different for rays of different colours, so each bright band is differentiated in colour, creating a miniature rainbow. Supernumerary rainbows are clearest when raindrops are small and of uniform size. The very existence of supernumerary rainbows was historically a first indication of the wave nature of light, and the first explanation was provided by Thomas Young in 1804.[38]

Reflected rainbow, reflection rainbow

Reflected rainbow

Reflection rainbow (top) and normal rainbow (bottom) at sunset

When a rainbow appears above a body of water, two complementary mirror bows may be seen below and above the horizon, originating from different light paths. Their names are slightly different.

A reflected rainbow may appear in the water surface below the horizon.[39] The sunlight is first deflected by the raindrops, and then reflected off the body of water, before reaching the observer. The reflected rainbow is frequently visible, at least partially, even in small puddles.

A reflection rainbow may be produced where sunlight reflects off a body of water before reaching the raindrops (see diagram and [1] ), if the water body is large, quiet over its entire surface, and close to the rain curtain. The reflection rainbow appears above the horizon. It intersects the normal rainbow at the horizon, and its arc reaches higher in the sky, with its centre as high above the horizon as the normal rainbow’s centre is below it. Due to the combination of requirements, a reflection rainbow is rarely visible.

Up to eight separate bows may be distinguished if the reflected and reflection rainbows happen to occur simultaneously: The normal (non-reflection) primary and secondary bows above the horizon (1, 2) with their reflected counterparts below it (3, 4), and the reflection primary and secondary bows above the horizon (5, 6) with their reflected counterparts below it (7, 8).[40][41]

Monochrome rainbow

Main article: Monochrome rainbow

Unenhanced photo of a red (monochrome) rainbow

Occasionally a shower may happen at sunrise or sunset, where the shorter wavelengths like blue and green have been scattered and essentially removed from the spectrum. Further scattering may occur due to the rain, and the result can be the rare and dramatic monochrome or red rainbow.[42]

Higher-order rainbows

In addition to the common primary and secondary rainbows, it is also possible for rainbows of higher orders to form. The order of a rainbow is determined by the number of light reflections inside the water droplets that create it: One reflection results in the first-order or primary rainbow; two reflections create the second-order or secondary rainbow. More internal reflections cause bows of higher orders—theoretically unto infinity.[43] As more and more light is lost with each internal reflection, however, each subsequent bow becomes progressively dimmer and therefore increasingly harder to spot. An additional challenge in observing the third-order (or tertiary) and fourth-order (quaternary) rainbows is their location in the direction of the sun (about 40° and 45° from the sun, respectively), causing them to become drowned in its glare.[44]

For these reasons, naturally occurring rainbows of an order higher than 2 are rarely visible to the naked eye. Nevertheless, sightings of the third-order bow in nature have been reported, and in 2011 it was photographed definitively for the first time.[45][46] Shortly after, the fourth-order rainbow was photographed as well,[47][48] and in 2014 the first ever pictures of the fifth-order (or quinary) rainbow, located in between the primary and secondary bows, were published.[49]

In a laboratory setting, it is possible to create bows of much higher orders. Felix Billet (1808–1882) depicted angular positions up to the 19th-order rainbow, a pattern he called a “rose of rainbows”.[50][51] In the laboratory, it is possible to observe higher-order rainbows by using extremely bright and well collimated light produced by lasers. Up to the 200th-order rainbow was reported by Ng et al. in 1998 using a similar method but an argon ion laser beam.[52]

Tertiary and quaternary rainbows should not be confused with “triple” and “quadruple” rainbows—terms sometimes erroneously used to refer to the—much more common—supernumerary bows and reflection rainbows.

Rainbows under moonlight

Spray moonbow at the Lower Yosemite Fall
Main article: Moonbow

Like most atmospheric optical phenomena, rainbows can be caused by light from the Sun, but also from the Moon. In case of the latter, the rainbow is referred to as a lunar rainbowor moonbow. They are much dimmer and rarer than solar rainbows, requiring the Moon to be near-full in order for them to be seen. For the same reason, moonbows are often perceived as white and may be thought of as monochrome. The full spectrum is present, however, but the human eye is not normally sensitive enough to see the colours. Long exposure photographs will sometimes show the colour in this type of rainbow.[53]


Fogbow and glory.
Main article: Fog bow

Fogbows form in the same way as rainbows, but they are formed by much smaller cloud and fog droplets that diffract light extensively. They are almost white with faint reds on the outside and blues inside; often one or more broad supernumerary bands can be discerned inside the inner edge. The colours are dim because the bow in each colour is very broad and the colours overlap. Fogbows are commonly seen over water when air in contact with the cooler water is chilled, but they can be found anywhere if the fog is thin enough for the sun to shine through and the sun is fairly bright. They are very large—almost as big as a rainbow and much broader. They sometimes appear with a glory at the bow’s centre.[54]

Fog bows should not be confused with ice halos, which are very common around the world and visible much more often than rainbows (of any order),[55] yet are unrelated to rainbows.

Circumhorizontal and circumzenithal arcs

A circumhorizontal arc (bottom), below a circumscribed halo

Circumzenithal arc

The circumzenithal and circumhorizontal arcs are two related optical phenomena similar in appearance to a rainbow, but unlike the latter, their origin lies in light refraction through hexagonal ice crystals rather than liquid water droplets. This means that they are not rainbows, but members of the large family of halos.

Both arcs are brightly coloured ring segments centred on the zenith, but in different positions in the sky: The circumzenithal arc is notably curved and located high above the Sun (or Moon) with its convex side pointing downwards (creating the impression of an “upside down rainbow”); the circumhorizontal arc runs much closer to the horizon, is more straight and located at a significant distance below the Sun (or Moon). Both arcs have their red side pointing towards the sun and their violet part away from it, meaning the circumzenithal arc is red on the bottom, while the circumhorizontal arc is red on top.[56][57]

The circumhorizontal arc is sometimes referred to by the misnomer “fire rainbow”. In order to view it, the Sun or Moon must be at least 58° above the horizon, making it a rare occurrence at higher latitudes. The circumzenithal arc, visible only at a solar or lunar elevation of less than 32°, is much more common, but often missed since it occurs almost directly overhead.

Rainbows on Titan

It has been suggested that rainbows might exist on Saturn‘s moon Titan, as it has a wet surface and humid clouds. The radius of a Titan rainbow would be about 49° instead of 42°, because the fluid in that cold environment is methane instead of water. Although visible rainbows may be rare due to Titan’s hazy skies, infrared rainbows may be more common, but an observer would need infrared night vision goggles to see them.[58]

Scientific history

The classical Greek scholar Aristotle (384–322 BC) was first to devote serious attention to the rainbow.[59] According to Raymond L. Lee and Alistair B. Fraser, “Despite its many flaws and its appeal to Pythagorean numerology, Aristotle’s qualitative explanation showed an inventiveness and relative consistency that was unmatched for centuries. After Aristotle’s death, much rainbow theory consisted of reaction to his work, although not all of this was uncritical.”[60]

In Book I of Naturales Quaestiones (c. 65 AD), the Roman philosopher Seneca the Younger discusses various theories of the formation of rainbows extensively, including those of Aristotle. He notices that rainbows appear always opposite to the sun, that they appear in water sprayed by a rower, in the water spat by a fuller on clothes stretched on pegs or by water sprayed through a small hole in a burst pipe. He even speaks of rainbows produced by small rods (virgulae) of glass, anticipating Newton’s experiences with prisms. He takes into account two theories: one, that the rainbow is produced by the sun reflecting in each water drop, the other, that it is produced by the sun reflected in a cloud shaped like a concave mirror; he favours the latter. He also discusses other phenomena related to rainbows: the mysterious “virgae” (rods), halos and parhelia.[61]

According to Hüseyin Gazi Topdemir, the Persian physicist and polymath Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen; 965–1039), attempted to provide a scientific explanation for the rainbow phenomenon. In his Maqala fi al-Hala wa Qaws Quzah (On the Rainbow and Halo), al-Haytham “explained the formation of rainbow as an image, which forms at a concave mirror. If the rays of light coming from a farther light source reflect to any point on axis of the concave mirror, they form concentric circles in that point. When it is supposed that the sun as a farther light source, the eye of viewer as a point on the axis of mirror and a cloud as a reflecting surface, then it can be observed the concentric circles are forming on the axis.”[62] He was not able to verify this because his theory that “light from the sun is reflected by a cloud before reaching the eye” did not allow for a possible experimental verification.[63] This explanation was later repeated by Averroes,[62] and, though incorrect, provided the groundwork for the correct explanations later given by Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī (1267–1319) and Theodoric of Freiberg (c.1250–1310).[64]

Ibn al-Haytham’s contemporary, the Persian philosopher and polymath Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna; 980–1037), provided an alternative explanation, writing “that the bow is not formed in the dark cloud but rather in the very thin mist lying between the cloud and the sun or observer. The cloud, he thought, serves simply as the background of this thin substance, much as a quicksilver lining is placed upon the rear surface of the glass in a mirror. Ibn Sīnā would change the place not only of the bow, but also of the colour formation, holding the iridescence to be merely a subjective sensation in the eye.”[65] This explanation, however, was also incorrect.[62] Ibn Sīnā’s account accepts many of Aristotle’s arguments on the rainbow.[66]

In Song Dynasty China (960–1279), a polymath scholar-official named Shen Kuo (1031–1095) hypothesised—as a certain Sun Sikong (1015–1076) did before him—that rainbows were formed by a phenomenon of sunlight encountering droplets of rain in the air.[67] Paul Dong writes that Shen’s explanation of the rainbow as a phenomenon of atmospheric refraction “is basically in accord with modern scientific principles.”[68]

According to Nader El-Bizri, the Persian astronomer, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311), gave a fairly accurate explanation for the rainbow phenomenon. This was elaborated on by his student, Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī (1267–1319), who gave a more mathematically satisfactory explanation of the rainbow. He “proposed a model where the ray of light from the sun was refracted twice by a water droplet, one or more reflections occurring between the two refractions.” An experiment with a water-filled glass sphere was conducted and al-Farisi showed the additional refractions due to the glass could be ignored in his model.[63] As he noted in his Kitab Tanqih al-Manazir (The Revision of the Optics), al-Farisi used a large clear vessel of glass in the shape of a sphere, which was filled with water, in order to have an experimental large-scale model of a rain drop. He then placed this model within a camera obscura that has a controlled aperture for the introduction of light. He projected light unto the sphere and ultimately deduced through several trials and detailed observations of reflections and refractions of light that the colours of the rainbow are phenomena of the decomposition of light.

In Europe, Ibn al-Haytham’s Book of Optics was translated into Latin and studied by Robert Grosseteste. His work on light was continued by Roger Bacon, who wrote in his Opus Majus of 1268 about experiments with light shining through crystals and water droplets showing the colours of the rainbow.[69] In addition, Bacon was the first to calculate the angular size of the rainbow. He stated that the rainbow summit can not appear higher than 42° above the horizon.[70] Theodoric of Freiberg is known to have given an accurate theoretical explanation of both the primary and secondary rainbows in 1307. He explained the primary rainbow, noting that “when sunlight falls on individual drops of moisture, the rays undergo two refractions (upon ingress and egress) and one reflection (at the back of the drop) before transmission into the eye of the observer.”[71][72] He explained the secondary rainbow through a similar analysis involving two refractions and two reflections.

René Descartes’ sketch of how primary and secondary rainbows are formed

Descartes‘ 1637 treatise, Discourse on Method, further advanced this explanation. Knowing that the size of raindrops did not appear to affect the observed rainbow, he experimented with passing rays of light through a large glass sphere filled with water. By measuring the angles that the rays emerged, he concluded that the primary bow was caused by a single internal reflection inside the raindrop and that a secondary bow could be caused by two internal reflections. He supported this conclusion with a derivation of the law of refraction(subsequently to, but independently of, Snell) and correctly calculated the angles for both bows. His explanation of the colours, however, was based on a mechanical version of the traditional theory that colours were produced by a modification of white light.[73][74]

Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light was composed of the light of all the colours of the rainbow, which a glass prism could separate into the full spectrum of colours, rejecting the theory that the colours were produced by a modification of white light. He also showed that red light is refracted less than blue light, which led to the first scientific explanation of the major features of the rainbow.[75] Newton’s corpuscular theory of light was unable to explain supernumerary rainbows, and a satisfactory explanation was not found until Thomas Youngrealised that light behaves as a wave under certain conditions, and can interfere with itself.

Young’s work was refined in the 1820s by George Biddell Airy, who explained the dependence of the strength of the colours of the rainbow on the size of the water droplets.[76] Modern physical descriptions of the rainbow are based on Mie scattering, work published by Gustav Mie in 1908.[77] Advances in computational methods and optical theory continue to lead to a fuller understanding of rainbows. For example, Nussenzveig provides a modern overview.[78]


Main article: Rainbows in culture

Rainbow in the book of Genesis

A rainbow in the coat of arms of Regen, Germany

Rainbows occur frequently in mythology, and have been used in the arts. One of the earliest literary occurrences of a rainbow is in Genesis 9, as part of the flood story of Noah, where it is a sign of God’s covenant to never destroy all life on earth with a global flood again. In Norse mythology, the rainbow bridge Bifröst connects the world of men (Midgard) and the realm of the gods (Asgard). Cuchavira was the god of the rainbow for the Muisca people in present-day Colombia and when the regular rains on the Bogotá savanna were over, the people thanked him offering gold, snails and small emeralds. The Irish leprechaun‘s secret hiding place for his pot of gold is usually said to be at the end of the rainbow. This place is appropriately impossible to reach, because the rainbow is an optical effect which cannot be approached.

Rainbows sometimes appear in heraldry too, even if its characteristic of multiple colours doesn’t really fit in to the usual heraldic style.

Rainbow flags have been used for centuries. It was a symbol of the Cooperative movement in the German Peasants’ War in the 16th century, of peace in Italy, and of gay pride and LGBT social movements since the 1970s. In 1994, Archbishop Desmond Tutu and President Nelson Mandela described newly democratic post-apartheid South Africa as the rainbow nation. The rainbow has even been used in technology product logos including the Apple computer logo.[79] Many political alliances have called themselves Rainbow Coalition.

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Initial release October 6, 2010; 6 years ago
Stable release Windows 10
9.631.50832.0 (October 13, 2016; 17 days ago) [±][1]
9.6.5 (October 16, 2016; 14 days ago) [±][2]
9.5.2 (October 14, 2016; 16 days ago) [±][3]Windows 10 Mobile, Windows Phone 8
8.0 (May 15, 2016; 5 months ago) [±][4]
Development status Active
Operating system Windows 10;[5]
iOS 7.0 or later;[6]
Android 2.2 or later
Windows Phone 8[7]
Windows 10 Mobile[8]
Size 9.93 MB
Available in 25 languages[9]
Type Photo and video
License Freeware
Alexa rank Increase 15 (October 2016)[10]

Instagram is an online mobile photo-sharing, video-sharing, and social networking service that enables its users to take pictures and videos, and share them either publicly or privately on the app, as well as through a variety of other social networking platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, and Flickr.[11] Originally, a distinctive feature was that it confined photos to a square shape, similar to Kodak Instamatic and Polaroid SX-70 images, in contrast to the 4:3 aspect ratio typically used by mobile device cameras. In August 2015, version 7.5 was released, allowing users to upload media captured in any aspect ratio. Users can also apply digital filters to their images. Videos on Instagram debuted with a 640×640 fixed resolution and maximum 15-second limit in June 2013;[12] resolutions now include up to 1080p since July 2015 and length is now up to 60 seconds since January 2016.[13] [14]

Instagram was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, and launched in October 2010 as a free mobile app. The service rapidly gained popularity, with over 100 million active users as of April 2012[15][16] and over 300 million as of December 2014.[17] Instagram is distributed through the Apple App Store and Google Play.[18] Support for the app is available for iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, Windows 10 devices and Android handsets, while third-party Instagram apps are available for BlackBerry 10 and Nokia-SymbianDevices.[19][20]

The service was acquired by Facebook in April 2012 for approximately US$1 billion in cash and stock.[21] In 2013, Instagram grew by 23%, while Facebook, as the parent company, only grew by 3%.[22]



Further information: Timeline of Instagram

The login and sign-up screen for the Instagram app on the iPhone as of April 2016

Instagram began development in San Francisco, when Systrom and Brazilian Krieger chose to focus their multi-featured HTML5 check-in project, Burbn, on mobile photography.[23][24]

As Krieger reasoned, Burbn became too similar to Foursquare, and both realized that it has gone too far. And for that, Burbn pivoted to become more focused.[25] The word “Instagram” is a portmanteau of “instant camera” and “telegram“.[26]

On March 5, 2010, Systrom closed a US$500,000 seed funding round with Baseline Ventures and Andreessen Horowitz while working on Burbn.[27] Josh Riedel then joined the company as Community Manager.[28] Shayne Sweeney joined in November 2010 as an engineer and Jessica Zollman was hired as a Community Evangelist in August 2011.[29][30]

In January 2011, Instagram added hashtags to help users discover both photographs and each other.[31] Instagram encourages users to make tags both specific and relevant, rather than tagging generic words like “photo”, to make photographs stand out and to attract like-minded Instagram users.[32] In September, version 2.0 went live in the App Store (iOS) and included new and live filters, instant tilt–shift, high resolution photographs, optional borders, one-click rotation, and an updated icon.[33] On February 2, 2011, an announcement revealed that Instagram had raised US$7 million in Series A funding from a variety of investors, including Benchmark Capital, Jack Dorsey, Chris Sacca (through Capital fund), and Adam D’Angelo.[34] The deal valued Instagram at around $25 million.[35]

On April 3, 2012, Instagram was released for Android phones running the 2.2 Froyo version of the OS,[36] and it was downloaded more than one million times in less than one day.[37] That same week, Instagram raised US$50 million from venture capitalists for a share of the company; the process valued Instagram at US$500 million.[35] Over the next three months, Instagram was rated more than one million times on Google Play[38] and was the fifth app to ever reach one million ratings on Google Play—as of April 2013, it had been rated nearly four million times.

Facebook made an offer to purchase Instagram, along with its 13 employees, for approximately US$1 billion in cash and stock in April 2012,[21] with a plan to keep the company independently managed.[39] Britain’s Office of Fair Trading approved the deal on August 14, 2012,[40] and on August 22, 2012, the Federal Trade Commission in the U.S. closed its investigation, allowing the deal to proceed.[41][42] On September 6, 2012, the deal between Instagram and Facebook was officially closed.[43]

On April 12, 2012, Facebook acquired Instagram for approximately US$1 billion in cash and stock.[44][45] The deal, which was made just prior to Facebook’s scheduled IPO, cost about a quarter of Facebook’s cash-on-hand, according to figures documented at the end of 2011. The deal was for a company characterized as having “lots of buzz but no business model“, and the price was contrasted with the US$35 million Yahoo! paid for Flickr in 2005,[39] a website that has since become among the 50 most popular in the world.[46]

Mark Zuckerberg noted that Facebook was “committed to building and growing Instagram independently”, in contrast to its past practice.[39] According to multiple reports, the deal netted Systrom US$400 million based on his ownership stake in the business.[47] The exact purchase price was US$300 million in cash and 23 million shares of stock.[48]

On December 17, 2012, Instagram updated its Terms of Service, granting itself the right—starting on January 16, 2013—to sell users’ photos to third parties without notification or compensation.[49][50][51][52] The criticism from privacy advocates, consumers, the National Geographic Society,[53] and celebrities like Kim Kardashian[54] prompted Instagram to issue a statement retracting the controversial terms; regardless, the issue resulted in the loss of a portion of Instagram’s user-base, as former users switched to other photo-sharing services, which reported an increase in usage.[55]

In January 2013, it was confirmed that Instagram had asked for photo identification as a form of verification due to unspecified violations.[56]

Following Emily White‘s appointment to the position of chief operating officer in March 2013, she stated in September 2013 that the company should be ready to begin selling advertising by September 2014 as a way to generate business from a popular entity that had not yet created profit for its parent company.[57] In September 2013, Instagram reaffirmed its commitment to free and open access to its smart-phone app for users.[58] During an interview with Women’s Wear Daily(WWD), White cited “the sophistication of cameras on smartphones as one reason for ushering in the transformative change”, and she used her observation of the replacement of large cameras with mobile smartphones during a fashion show as an example.[59] On October 3, 2013, Instagram announced that it would be adding advertising to its platform.[60]

On October 22, 2013, during the Nokia World event, held at Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Systrom confirmed the impending release of the official Instagram app for the Windows Phone.[61] On November 21, 2013, the official Instagram Beta for Windows Phone was released to Windows Phone 8 to allow Windows Phone users faster access to Instagram services; although, at the time of release, the app was still under development.[62][63]

Instagram introduced sponsored post advertising targeting US users in November 2013,[64] and UK users in September 2014.[65][66]

On December 12, 2013, Instagram added Direct, a feature that allows users to send photos to specific people directly from the app. Instagram’s primary intention with the Direct feature is to compete against messaging services, including Snapchat.[67][68]

On March 11, 2014, Instagram released an updated Android app with performance improvements and a flatter interface. The update was primarily intended to reduce the app’s file size and resource usage, and it was optimized for and tested on low-end smartphones sold in emerging markets, such as the Samsung Galaxy Y, which was popular in Brazil at the time.[69]

The company’s Global Head of Business and Brand Development—a new position for Instagram—was announced in mid-August 2014. Facebook’s former Regional Director James Quarles was assigned the role, which manages Instagram’s revenue strategy, in addition to both the marketing and sales teams. Quarles will report directly to Systrom during a tenure in which he will develop new “monetization products”, as explained by a company representative to the media.[70]

Since the app’s launch it had used the Foursquare API to provide named location tagging. In early 2014, after being purchased by Facebook, the company was switched to using Facebook Places.[71]

On October 22, 2015, Instagram launched Boomerang,[72] an app where you shoot a one-second burst of five photos that are turned into a silent video that plays forwards and then reverses in a loop.[73]

On May 11, 2016, Instagram updated its app design with thinner icons and a pinker, more abstract logo.

On October 13, 2016, Instagram published a desktop client for the first time on Windows 10, which can be downloaded via the Windows Store.


Instagram app on smartphone


By December 2010, Instagram had one million registered users.[74] In June 2011, Instagram announced it had 5 million users,[75] and it passed 10 million in September of the same year.[76] In April 2012, it was announced that over 30 million accounts were set up on Instagram.[77] In December 2014, Instagram co-founder Kevin Systrom announced that Instagram has 300 million users accessing the site per month.[78]

Instagram announced that 100 million photographs had been uploaded to its service as of July 2011. This total reached 150 million in August 2011.[79][80] By May 2012,[81] 58 photographs were being uploaded and a new user was being gained each second. The total number of photographs uploaded had exceeded one billion.

There are basic Terms of Use that Instagram users must follow, including an age requirement of 13 years or older, restrictions against posting violent, nude, partially nude, or sexually suggestive photographs and responsibility for one’s account and all activity conducted with it.[82]

There are also proprietary rights in content on Instagram. Instagram does not claim any ownership rights in the text, files, images, photographs, video, sounds, musical works, works of authorship, applications, or any other materials (collectively, content) that users post on or through the Instagram Services.[82]

On August 9, 2012, English musician Ellie Goulding came out with a new music video for her song “Anything Could Happen.” The video only contained fan submitted Instagram photographs that used various Instagram filters to represent words or lyrics from the song[83] and over 1,200 different photographs were submitted.

On February 27, 2013, Instagram announced 100 million active users, only two-and-a-half years after the launch of the app.[84]As of September 9, 2013, the company has announced a total of more than 150 million monthly active users.[57]

Many celebrities have profiles on Instagram, sharing photos and videos of their personal and professional lives with fans. Some celebrities deleted their accounts in response to Instagram’s proposed change to its Terms of Service, which would have allowed the photo-sharing app to sell images to advertisers without compensation to users.[85]

Instagram was listed among Times 50 Best Android Applications for 2013.[86]


Instagram’s users are divided equally with 50% iPhone owners and 50% Android owners. While instagram has a neutral gender-bias format, 68% of Instagram users are female while 32% are male. Instagram’s geographical use is shown to favor urban areas as 17% of US adults who live in urban areas use instagram while only 11% of adults in suburban and rural areas do so. While Instagram may appear to be one of the most widely used sites for photo sharing, only 7% of daily photo uploads, among the top four photo-sharing platforms, come from Instagram. Instagram has been proven to attract the younger generation with 90% of the 150 million users under the age of 35. From June 2012 to June 2013, Instagram approximately doubled their number of users. As regards income, 15% of US internet users who make less than $30,000 per year use Instagram, while 14% of those making $30,000 to $50,000, and 12% of users who make more than $50,000 per year do so.[87]With respect to the education demographic, respondents with some college education proved to be the most active on Instagram with 23%. Following behind, college graduates consist of 18% and users with a high school diploma or less make up 15%. Among these Instagram users, 24% say they use the app several times a day.[88]


Weekend Hashtag Project

The “Weekend Hashtag Project” is a series featuring designated themes and hashtags chosen by Instagram’s Community Team.[89] Followers receive the weekend’s project every Friday, and each project encourages participants to post creative photographs according to the designated theme each weekend.[89]

Throwback Thursday

Throwback Thursday is a widely used trend on Instagram where users post pictures from the past with the hashtag #TBT. This trend usually includes pictures of users’ early childhood, past special occasions, or monumental events. This popular trend started in 2011 shortly after Instagram introduced the capabilities of hashtags on pictures. However, according to Google trends throwback Thursday’s popularity didn’t spike until February 2012.[90] This trend has reached popularity through celebrities such as Kim Kardashian and Molly Sims.[91]


Selfie, a self-portrait photograph typically taken with a cell phone or digital camera, has become a trending topic on Instagram becoming the “word of the year” as announced by Oxford English Dictionary in November 2013. Selfies attract a wide range of viewers as seen by the second most-liked picture on instagram from Justin Bieber’s instagram account.[92] Bieber’s selfie with Selena Gomez acquired 1.82 million likes. This trend has sparked interest within the music industry as well with the debut of the song “Selfie” by The Chainsmokers in January 2014.


Finstagram is a portmanteau of the words “fake” and “Instagram.” Usually, the account is meant to be a more private depiction of the user. Finstagrams are commonly used by teens as a way to escape the pressures of expectations from their main account.[93]

Features and tools

An original photograph (left) is automatically cropped to a square by Instagram, and has a filter added at the selection of the user (right)

Users can upload photographs and short videos, follow other users’ feeds[94] and geotagimages with longitude and latitude coordinates, or the name of a location. Every year, Instagram released Top 10 Instagram geotagged locations in the world, in pictures.[95]Users can connect their Instagram account to other social networking sites, enabling them to share uploaded photos to those sites.[94] As of June 2013, users can connect their Instagram accounts to Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, and Flickr.

In 2012, Instagram created web profiles which allows users to use their Instagram account like a social media site. This gave users a web profile featuring a selection of recently shared photographs, biographical information, and other personal details. The web feed is a simpler version of the phone app, mimicking the look and feel users are already accustomed to.[96]

In December 2013, Instagram added a feature named Instagram Direct that allows users to send photos only to a specific user or group of users, rather than having it be viewable by all. This was viewed as a response to the popularity of services like Snapchat.[97]

In August 2015, Instagram allowed users to start using non square images as part of the feature set.[98]

On October 29, 2015, Instagram announced that it would allow advertisers to buy carousel ads to expose company brands to more people.[99]

On May 31, 2016, Instagram announced the launch of new tools for business accounts, including new business profiles, analytics and the ability to turn Instagram posts into ads directly from the Instagram app itself.[100] New business dashboard tools, named Instagram Insights, which includes business profiles and promotion options. Instagram Insights will first roll out in US, Australia and New Zealand then be available in all regions globally by the end of 2016.[101]

On August 18, 2016, Instagram announced to launch a new feature called Instagram Events video channel on its Explore page that uses an algorithm to curate user-generated videos from major events.[102]

Explore Tab

The new explore tab was introduced in mid-2012 in which 21 photos are featured when a user clicks the tab second from the left on the bottom bar of the Instagram app. The photos must be of a public user whose profile is not set to private. This section of Instagram is where users can search for specific users or particular hashtags that interest them.


A photo collage of an unprocessed image (top left) modified with the 16 different Instagram filters available in 2011

Instagram offers a number of photographic filters that users can apply to their images:

  • Normal: No filter applied
  • 1977: The increased exposure with a red tint gives the photograph a rosy, brighter, faded look.
  • Amaro: Adds light to an image, with the focus on the centre.[103]
  • Brannan: Increases contrast and exposure and adds a metallic tint.
  • Earlybird: Gives photographs an older look with a sepia tint and warm temperature.
  • Hefe: Hight contrast and saturation, with a similar effect to Lo-Fi but not quite as dramatic.
  • Hudson: Creates an “icy” illusion with heightened shadows, cool tint and dodged center.[104]
  • Inkwell: Direct shift to black and white – no extra editing.
  • Kelvin: Increases saturation and temperature to give it a radiant “glow”.[105]
  • Lo-fi: Enriches color and adds strong shadows through the use of saturation and “warming” the temperature.
  • Mayfair: Applies a warm pink tone, subtle vignetting to brighten the photograph center and a thin black border[106]
  • Nashville: Warms the temperature, lowers contrast and increases exposure to give a light “pink” tint – making it feel “nostalgic”.
  • Rise: Adds a “glow” to the image, with softer lighting of the subject.
  • Sierra: Gives a faded, softer look.
  • Sutro: Burns photo edges, increases highlights and shadows dramatically with a focus on purple and brown colors.
  • Toaster: Ages the image by “burning” the centre and adds a dramatic vignette.
  • Valencia: Fades the image by increasing exposure and warming the colors, to give it an antique feel
  • Walden: Increases exposure and adds a yellow tint.
  • Willow: A monochromatic filter with subtle purple tones and a translucent white border.[107]
  • X-Pro II: Increases color vibrance with a golden tint, high contrast and slight vignette added to the edges.
  • Slumber: Desaturates the image as well as adds haze for a retro, dreamy look – with an emphasis on blacks and blues.
  • Cream: Adds a creamy look that both warms and cools the image.
  • Ludwig: A slight hint of desaturation that also enhances light.
  • Aden: This filter gives a blue/green natural look.
  • Perpetua: Adding a pastel look, this filter is ideal for portraits.[108][109]
  • Clarendon[110]
  • Gingham[110]
  • Moon
  • Lark
  • Reyes
  • Juno
  • Stinson

In December 2014, Slumber, Crema, Ludwig, Aden, and Perpetua were five new filters to be added to the Instagram filter family.[111]


Another feature, the Lux effect, allows you to quickly adjust the exposure and contrast through a simple 100-point slider. This editing tool allows you to control the brightness to the saturation levels of each photograph.[112]


Initially a purely photo-sharing service, Instagram incorporated video sharing in June 2013, allowing its users to record and share videos lasting for up to 15 seconds.[12] The addition was seen by some in the technology media as Facebook‘s attempt at competing with Twitter‘s Vine video-sharing application.

In the early quarter of 2016, Instagram increased the 15 seconds limit on videos to 60 seconds.[113][114][115][116]

Instagram Stories

On August 2, 2016, Instagram launched a new feature called Instagram Stories. Instagram Stories allows users to share photos and videos, which will disappear after 24 hours and won’t appear on the user’s profile grid or in their feed.[117]

Instagram Direct

On December 12, 2013 at the press event in New York, Instagram founder Kevin Systrom announced the introduction of private photo and video sharing feature called Instagram Direct.[118] In September 2015, Instagram Direct received a major update, adding new features such as instant messaging, adding more than one user & sharing more than one photos in a single conversation, and sharing post & profiles from feeds directly to the user.[119][120][121]


Terms of use

On December 17, 2012, Instagram announced a change to its terms of use, stating that “you agree that a business or other entity may pay us to display your username, likeness, photos (along with any associated metadata), and/or actions you take, in connection with paid or sponsored content or promotions, without any compensation to you”.

There was no apparent option for users to opt out of the changed terms of use without deleting their accounts,[122] and the move garnered severe criticism from privacy advocates as well as consumers.[citation needed] After one day, Instagram apologized saying that it would remove the controversial language from its terms of use.[123] Kevin Systrom, a co-founder of Instagram, responded to the controversy, stating:

Our intention in updating the terms was to communicate that we’d like to experiment with innovative advertising that feels appropriate on Instagram. Instead it was interpreted by many that we were going to sell your photos to others without any compensation. This is not true and it is our mistake that this language is confusing. To be clear: it is not our intention to sell your photos. We are working on updated language in the terms to make sure this is clear.[124]

The December 2012 change to the Instagram terms of use also introduced an arbitration clause, which remained even after the language pertaining to advertising and user content had been modified.[125][126]

Illicit drugs

The company acted quickly in response to a 2013 investigation from the BBC regarding the role of Instagram in sales of illicit drugs. The BBC discovered that users, mostly located in the US, were posting images of drugs they were selling and then completing transactions via instant messaging applications such as WhatsApp Messenger. Corresponding hashtags have been blocked as part of the company’s response and a spokesperson engaged with the BBC, explaining:

Instagram has a clear set of rules about what is and isn’t allowed on the site. We encourage people who come across illegal or inappropriate content to report it to us using the built-in reporting tools next to every photo, video or comment, so we can take action. People can’t buy things on Instagram, we are simply a place where people share photos and videos.[127]

Allegations of censorship

In October 2013, Instagram deleted the account of Canadian photographer Petra Collins after Collins posted a photo of herself in which pubic hair was visible beneath her bikini bottom,[128] Collins claims the account deletion was unfounded because it did not break any of Instagram’s terms and conditions.[129]

In January 2015, in a similar incident to Collins’s, Instagram deleted Australian Photography and Fashion Agency Sticks and Stones Agency’s Instagram account because of a photograph including pubic hair sticking out of bikini bottoms.[130]

Instagram has also been criticized for censoring women’s bodies, but not men’s, particularly through the Free the NippleCampaign.

Hidden pornography

In March 2016, The Daily Star reported ‘one million’ explicit porn films found on Instagram. The videos were unearthed by tech blogger Jed Ismael, who says he’s discovered over one million porn films on the site.[131][132]

Application icon

On May 11, 2016, Instagram updated to 8.0, changing the interface theme to a whiter theme, along with the app icon to a theme similar to one as an option for Microsoft PowerPoint. This generated negative feedback from many people.[133]

Related products and services

Facebook owned

  • Boomerang is an app that allows users to shoot a short video that loops back and forth infinitely. Users can post directly to Instagram or Facebook from the app, or share through email or texting.
  • Carousel, for Macs, is an app that provides a live feed of Instagram on the Mac.[134]
  • Hyperlapse is an app that allows users to create digitally stabilized time-lapse videos.[135]

Third party

  • 100 Cameras in 1 is an app available for iPhone users that provides additional effects for photos uploaded to Instagram.[134]
  • 6tag is an official alternate client Instagram for Windows Phone developed by Rudy Huyn. Often the app is considered better than the official, it has constant updates.[136][137]
  • iGrann is an unofficial alternate Instagram client for BlackBerry 10 developed by Adrian Sacchi.[138]
  • Inst10 is an unofficial alternate Instagram client for BlackBerry 10 developed by Nemory Studios.[139]
  • Iconosquare is a free app that provides personal statistics related to Instagram, including number of followers, likes, and comments, along with usage statistics.[134]
  • Instagram & PrintingInstaprint offers a device which can be rented for social gatherings that allows users to print photographs on Instagram.[134] Printsgram allows a user’s Instagram collection to be printed as a poster or stickers.[134]
  • Instamap is an app available for iPad that allows users of Instagram to find photos based on their location or a hashtag. Results can be displayed in a gallery or linked to a map.[134]
  • Printic – an app which allows users to print and share Instagram pictures from an iPhone. Pictures come in a vintage 3×4 inches (7.62×10.16 cm) format, with an orange envelope and a message for the recipient.[134]


Instagram was the runner-up for “Best Mobile App” at the 2010 TechCrunch Crunchies in January 2011.[140] In May 2011, Fast Company listed CEO Kevin Systrom at number 66 in the “The 100 Most Creative People in Business in 2011”.[141] In June 2011, Inc. included co-founders Systrom and Krieger in its 2011 “30 Under 30” list.[142]

Instagram won “Best Locally Made App” in the SF Weekly Web Awards in September 2011.[143] 7x7Magazines September 2011 issue featured Systrom and Krieger on the cover of their “The Hot 20 2011” issue.[144] In December 2011, Apple Inc. named Instagram “App of the Year” for 2011.[145] In 2015, Instagram was named #1 by Mashable on its list of “The 100 best iPhone apps of all time,” noting Instagram as “one of the most influential social networks in the world.” [146]

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Listen yourself

 So how you spent your day

Can you answer ?

#you don’t know!

Because you never focused how your life is going on but why ?? Because you have not a minute for yourself why ?? No one can answer have you ever seen your self after you are free from your sucking work yah ! That’s your life if you don’t do that how will you live money , parties , friends I don’t think that’s your life is what you think ? No that’s not your life your life is you isn’t it yes it is so having g a good time with is good life whether it’s a busy life , day , hours so how you feel like after reading my article ? I hope it realize about you for yourself


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Importance of English Language (Essay)

Posted by romesa

A language is tool by using that a person can be able to communicate his feelings to another person. So for the purpose of communication a language is necessary. The position which a language occupies in other countries is largely determined by the cultural, political, economic position of its implanters and their quality of civilization and advancement made by them in the field of science and technology.

The English language is an important language of the world it is the mother tongue of two advanced countries of the world America andGreat Britain. It is being spoken by half of the population of the world at present. Now it has gained the status of international language. It has become lingua France of the people of the world. It is no longer the exclusive possession of English race. Now it is the language of international communication but English is practically a language of administration, science, literature and diplomacy. English possesses a rich vocabulary, variety of expression and rich literature and culture. William Shakespeare’s dramas are compendium of wisdom and knowledge. English helps us to understand and appreciate master minds not only of English but those of the other languages like Zola, Brlzrc, Tolstoy, Cervence, Bores Pastemack, Goete, Maxum Gorky, Dante, Aristotle, Scorates and such others.

English language has universal use and appeals as a language of science and technology. Developing and poor countries can not afford to conduct independent research all the important fields of science such as agriculture, industry health and communications etc. These countries have a miserable low stage and standard of finance and scientist. They borrow largely from English, because it is source in all these fields. The rich English speaking nations conduct costly researches and poor nations easily borrow from them. Moreover fast developing science and technology in the field of space, computers etc go on coming and introducing new words which only English can absorb. In the medium of international communication, direct use of English by the most countries of the world has made it an effective medium of global intercommunication it enables us to make ourselves understandable to the world community and to establish direct association with the changes and developments taking place in the world around us at a rapid pace with any independence on translation apparatus.

English language is a living stream of world knowledge. Hence we can not cut ourselves of this body of word knowledge by giving up the study of English we run the risk of knocking the bottom off our higher education for which we mainly draw upon its resource and hospitality. In case we lose contact with it, our standard of scholarship is surely to suffer badly.

To sum up I can say that English is essential for we people. We may develop ourselves financially, politically, economically and socially through English language. Our development in the field of science and technology will be possible if we learnt to speak, read and write English language. To keep the wheels of our progress going to keep ourselves in touch with the best and latest of the present world we should continue studying this language.

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Typically hot, hardheaded, determined, always polite. Remembers her manners but will drop them on a dime to teach someone ‘What’s right’. Loves horses, knows how to ride, good cook, traditional type women that can still hold their own. Look just as natural in jeans and boots as they do in dresses. From farm family, or area, loves animals and children.

Usually underestimated and mistaken for the southern type. A country girl will often be referred to as ‘the one that got away’. Country girls offer their men the typical lovers traits, with an added challenge thrown in. Often a country girl will have a man that provides well enough, but will constantly be pushing to provide just as well.

They believe in ‘honesty is the best policy’ and are typically humble unless challenged.

Never will you see a country girl waiting to find someone who will take care of her.

You can find country girls in the mid-west region of the USA. You’ll be lucky to find one on the coast, as a country girl feels most at home in the mid-west.

From eHow:

Act sweet but have a strong side. Country girls retain all the charm and gentility of an old-fashioned gal, and mind their manners. But they can also be strong-willed when they need to be, protect the family farm or property, milk the cows, drive a tractor or operate the town post office by themselves.

A country girl knows how to use pots and pans. She bakes cakes for birthdays and special occasions, and picks the apples for her home-baked apple pie herself

More on iphone 7



Why Did Apple Remove the iPhone 7’s Headphone Jack?

10/19/2016 11:01 am ET

Why did Apple remove the headphone jack from the iPhone 7? originally appeared onQuora – the knowledge sharing network where compelling questions are answered by people with unique insights.

Answer by Brent Royal-Gordon, codesmith, on Quora:

In short, because it was more trouble than it’s worth.

A waterproof iPhone is a big win for users. Apple collects all sorts of data through AppleCare and the Genius Bar about what kinds of problems people have with their Apple devices, and they use this data to improve future products. Perhaps the best known example is the MagSafe adapter: Apple saw many broken laptops that had been pulled to the ground when someone tripped over the charging cable, so they designed a charging cable with a magnetic connector that would harmlessly detach when you sharply tugged on it. But they’ve also used this data in other ways, like selecting more resilient materials for iPhones; their moves from plastic to glass to various grades and colors of aluminum was driven by seeing what condition iPhones were in when they returned to the Genius Bar after months or years in the wild.

The most common kind of accidental damage for iPhones is probably dropping a phone and shattering the screen. Apple has changed the screen glass a couple times, and made an abortive attempt at moving to sapphire, but it hasn’t quite fixed that problem yet. But the second most common type is most likely liquid damage. I’m sure you know somebody who’s drowned an iPhone (and probably tried to revive it with a bowl of dry rice)—everybody does.

That’s what the limited waterproofing in the iPhone 7 is really about. It’s not about taking your iPhone for a swim, or in the shower, or even out in the rain. It’s about accidentally dropping it in the toilet or pool, or forgetting it’s in your pants pocket when you do the laundry, or getting splashed when a car drives through a puddle, or any of a hundred other accidents that used to result in an expensive repair that made you less happy with your phone.

So waterproofing (yes, I know, it’s actually water resistance) is something every iPhone user needs, even if they don’t know it. It’s an important feature.

Unfortunately, it’s also a difficult feature. Every part of the phone that interacts with the outside of the phone needs to be redesigned, usually in ways that make them larger. And that’s a problem.

The inside of an iPhone is valuable real estate. There’s a story from the iPod days: examining a prototype one day, Steve Jobs said it was too big, but the engineers told him that making it smaller was impossible. So Jobs dropped the prototype in an aquarium and watched closely as it sank to the bottom, trailing bubbles. “Those are air bubbles,” Jobs said. “That means there’s space in there. Make it smaller.”

Apple’s engineers have long since learned that lesson. Today, iPhones are crammed full of components, with as little wasted as possible. Most of the space inside an iPhone is behind the display assembly. In this area, the thickness of components is limited; you can put chips and batteries here, but not much else. Access to the outside world is also obstructed—the screen is in front and solid aluminum behind.

That means that any component that is nearly as thick as the phone, sends or receives radio signals through the antenna lines, or reaches the front of the case has to be in the bezel areas above or below the screen. That includes antennas, cameras, ports, speakers, sensors, microphones, and the Home button and Touch ID hardware. I’ve labeled an image (from the old marketing website) of the 6S internals to give you an idea of how much stuff is jockeying for space in these couple square inches:


Just eyeballing it, the headphone jack in the 6S probably takes up about 10% of the bezel space in the entire phone. (I’m talking about the entire jack assembly—the big whiteish piece in the bottom left—not just the shaft itself.) The only larger bezel components are the speaker, the rear camera, and possibly the earpiece.

Think of real-world places with very valuable real estate. In Manhattan, a not-so-profitable gas station occupying a parcel of very expensive land will often be bulldozed to make way for a tall building full of lucrative offices or condos. The inside of an iPhone is valuable real estate, and these bezel areas are especially scarce. Parts that aren’t providing enough value are likely to get bulldozed.

Waterproofing takes a lot of space—especially when it demands a new Taptic Engine. Here’s a similar image of the bottom bezel area of the iPhone 7. You might notice that most of the components are completely different:


The Taptic Engine is much larger and is partially behind the new, non-mechanical Home button. The Home button change is probably both for waterproofing (it’s hard to seal all of those seams) and for reliability (broken Home buttons are another common repair—or at least people think they are); an impulse from the Taptic Engine is now used to make the non-mechanical button “click” the way the old one did.

But the new Taptic Engine protrudes into the space previously taken up by the headphone jack; I estimate it covers about a quarter of the jack’s depth, depending on the purpose of the three prongs just below the Taptic Engine’s main body. And ithas to be there, in the bottom left of the phone; it must be near the Home button, and the speaker’s on the right side.

Looking at the rest of the bezel, the speaker is also much larger and fully enclosed. Presumably, this makes it louder and improves its waterproofing. There are also water-tight seals all around the rim of the phone. And there are a number of other new components here; in the exact location of the old headphone jack, you’ll find a barometric vent, which allows the barometer to work so the iPhone can sense altitude changes (like climbing a flight of stairs) without permitting water into the phone.

I don’t know of a similar image of the top bezel, but with a larger rear camera, a second speaker, and the need for similar waterproofing work in that area, I can only assume it’s gotten pretty crowded up there, too. Perhaps the unidentifiable parts in the 7’s bottom include a replacement for the antenna unit at the top of the 6S.

So if the headphone jack couldn’t stay in the lower left, then where else could they have put it? It’s a huge component, it’s only getting bigger if it’s being waterproofed, and it absolutely must be in one of the cramped bezels.

Keep in mind as well that, even with the headphone jack gone, there’s tons of other stuff that still won’t fit in the bezels. The 9.7″ iPad Pro has a really cool “True Tone” display that changes its color temperature to match the lighting conditions. It’s gotten rave reviews, and I thought it was a shoo-in for the iPhone 7. But it didn’t make the cut—it requires two extra light sensors in the bezels, and there just wasn’t room for them.

Ports are especially difficult to waterproof. Besides literally being holes in the phone, ports are also places where electricity is directly exposed to the outside world. It’s well known that electricity and water don’t mix—or rather, that they mix all too well. That means ports need special attention when you’re waterproofing.

The iPhone 6S has two ports: the Lightning port and the headphone jack. Lightning was introduced only a few years ago; given how serious an issue water damage has been and how long Apple’s product cycles are, I suspect they were thinking about waterproofing from the beginning, so this would have been pretty easy to handle.

But the headphone jack is a different story. The headphone jack was designed a century ago and Apple can’t change its design to make it easier to waterproof. Other waterproof phones have struggled with the headphone jack; they’ve either provided a plug you’re supposed to put in when it’s not in use, or they’ve not proven to be as waterproof as advertised.

That’s not to say it’s impossible to waterproof a headphone jack, or that other manufacturers haven’t done it. But the most dependably waterproof port is the one you removed.

It doesn’t actually do very much. So the headphone jack takes up lots of precious bezel space, is especially difficult to waterproof, and is in the way of the necessary expansion of the Taptic Engine. It’s causing a lot of problems. How much is it bringing to the table? Is it pulling its weight?

Well, the headphone jack has three purposes:

  • Get stereo audio out of the phone.
  • Get mono audio into the phone.
  • Get volume and play/pause signals into the phone.

All of these are not only redundant, but doubly redundant: the Lightning port andBluetooth radio can both do all of these things.

The headphone jack can’t really do anything else. You can’t connect other accessories to it. (Well, you can do some simple, passive things like a Square card reader, but this is hacky, insecure, provides a poor user experience, and can be done better through Lightning or Bluetooth.) You can’t provide power through it, so active noise cancellation headphones need separate batteries. You can’t perform media commands beyond the basics provided by the Apple inline remote, or figure out what the phone is playing, or even learn the current volume level.

In fact, before the iPhone, it wasn’t even particularly common for phones to have standard headphone jacks. Most phones before that had proprietary headset connectors. The main reason the iPhone used a standard headphone jack was that the iPod did first. For a dedicated music device, headphone compatibility is pretty much a necessity, but a phone has a lot more on its plate.

The headphone jack is a gas station in Manhattan. There are more valuable things that could be done with the space.

It does half of what it does in incompatible ways. There are actually two standards for stereo-plus-headphones:


The iPhone uses CTIA (except in China, where OMTP is legally required), but some manufacturers use OMTP, and others used to use OMTP but have switched to CTIA. If you plug in incompatible devices, the plug will mechanically fit, but the headset won’t work properly.

Even leaving this issue aside, the play/pause and volume buttons are the Wild West. The only standard in this area, Android’s Wired Audio Headset Specification, appears to have been introduced in 2015, years after every phone manufacturer was already shipping headphones with controls on the cable. By that time, Apple had already shipped hundreds of millions of remotes that could never be made compatible with it.

This whole area is an intractable mess.

Headphone cables suck. Have you ever noticed that the feel of the plastic in an Apple headphone cable has changed over time? That’s Apple trying to reduce the cable’s tendency to knot in your pocket. Unfortunately, the cable is long enough thatit’s mathematically impossible to keep it from tangling, but they can try to make it a little bit better.

Headphone cables also snag (Apple responded to this by making iPods and iPhones pause when the headphone cable is yanked out of them). They end up on the wrong side of clothes and straps. They turn out to be too short or too long. They fray and break. In general, they’re just an overall nuisance.

Lightning cables are the same way, but wireless Bluetooth headphones avoid all of these problems entirely.

W1 has a neat trick up its sleeve. AirPods and other devices with the W1 chip can automatically switch between your different devices, so if you’re listening to music on your computer and then answer a call on your phone, they can seamlessly switch over without you having to unplug and re-plug a cable. That’s really convenient (and it encourages people to buy all-Apple, too).

Perfect backwards compatibility is possible. A headphone-to-Lightning adapter is cheap enough to ship with every iPhone and compatible with all devices supported by the old built-in port. Adapters aren’t ideal, but they’re a good solution for getting us over the hump.

In the long run—once the price drops—Apple believes that Bluetooth is the future for casual headphone use, while Lightning will serve advanced use cases like professional audio equipment. The only real cost, they believe, is the pain of the transition. If we ever want to leave the headphone port behind, that pain will have to be borne eventually. And they believe that now is as good a time as any to get it over with.

This question originally appeared on Quora – the knowledge sharing network where compelling questions are answered by people with unique insights. You can follow Quora on Twitter, Facebook, and Google+.

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